英単語+α 4 (2003/4/5)

中国・広東省、香港を中心に悪性肺炎「重症急性呼吸器症候群」(SARS)が広がっている。 わたしが住むここシンガポールでも2003年4月4日現在、シンガポール保健省の発表では感染者101人、死者6人となった。 

日本では、世界保健機関(WHO)の渡航自粛勧告を受けた措置として、政府が海外に在住・渡航する邦人に注意を喚起する「危険情報」を出した。

危険情報は危険度に応じて4段階あり、今回は第2段階の「渡航の是非の検討」にあたるそうだ。 ただ、「不要不急の渡航は延期を勧める」と付記することで、事実上、第3段階の「渡航延期」に準ずる扱いとした。

日本政府の対策としては、この危険情報を出す他、〈1〉両地域からの帰国者に対する検疫体制を強化する〈2〉SARSを感染症法に基づく「新感染症」として取り扱う――の計3項目となっている。

1999年施行の感染症法で定めた「新感染症」として取り扱われる感染症は、SARSが初めて。 新感染症として取り扱うことで、都道府県知事はSARS感染者に対し入院を勧告することができ、勧告に従わない場合は強制入院させることができる。 医療費は全額、公費負担となる。

検疫体制強化では、香港、広州(中国広東省)両空港などからの日本到着機内で乗客乗員全員に健康状態を尋ねる問診票を配布。 船舶での帰国者にも同様の措置を取る。 感染者が医療機関で受診した際、院内感染によって被害が拡大しないよう、両地域からの帰国者に対し事前に電話で連絡してから医療機関を訪ねるよう呼びかける。

感染症法: 結核を除く感染症の発生やまん延の予防、感染者に対する医療措置について定めた法律。かつて日本の感染症対策は「伝染病予防法」「性病予防法」「エイズ予防法」に基づいていたが、未知の感染症への備えや患者の人権尊重に配慮して、三法を1本化する形で1999年に施行された。

関連語句:

重症急性呼吸器症候群:SARS(severe acute respiratory syndrome)

SARS患者: SARS patients 
(例文)Health, Labor and Welfare Minister Chikara Sakaguchi told reporters after a Cabinet meeting Friday that he would ask the Tokyo metropolitan government and all prefectural governments to immediately reserve beds exclusively for SARS patients.


SARS感染者:SARS carriers、SARS-infected patients

感染症:communicable disease / infectious disease  / microbism 
(例文)Under the law concerning infectious diseases, patients confirmed to have contracted such diseases must receive treatment either at one hospital authorized to treat special contagious diseases, which has two beds for infected patients, or at one of 12 hospitals, with a total of 22 beds, authorized to treat first-type contagious diseases.


隔離する、検疫する:quarantine

隔離される:be quarantined

肺炎:pneumonia

感染症法:infectious disease law

法定伝染病:infectious disease designated by law

接触感染症:contagious disease
(例文)The subcommittee also agreed to treat SARS as a new contagious disease under the law governing infectious diseases, as well as deciding on the criteria by which cases should be brought to the government's attention.


SARSと診断されたひとは強制入院させられる−たとえ治療を拒んだとしても: Iindividuals diagnosed with severe acute respiratory syndrome will be forcibly hospitalized -- even if they refuse to seek treatment.


世界中でSARSによって死亡した者は80名近くにのぼり、2,000名以上が感染している: SARS has killed nearly 80 people and infected more than 2,000 worldwide.

伝染病患者:contagious disease patients

疑似患者:suspected case 
(例文)Earlier in the day, Chief Cabinet Secretary Yasuo Fukuda said that three new suspected cases of the deadly illness had emerged in Japan, bringing the total to 17.


SARSは2003年11月に中国広東省で発生したものと考えられている:SARS is believed to have originated in China's Guangdong Province in November, 2003.

病室:sickroom  
(例文)Chikara Sakaguchi, minister of health labor and welfare, said Friday that he will ask local governments to prepare sickrooms featuring low air pressure in order to curb the outflow of viruses.  At present, there are only 22 beds in low air-pressure sickrooms nationwide. These are available at 12 medical centers in nine prefectures, including Chiba, Tokyo, Osaka and Fukuoka.


SARS感染の診断を下される: be diagnosed with SARS

抗生物質:antibiotic
(例文)The subcommittee has decided that patients will be treated as SARS sufferers if they have returned from SARS-afflicted areas and have pneumonia and a fever of 38 C or higher, if they cannot be diagnosed with another illness, and if they fail to recover within three days of being given an antibiotic.

強制入院:forced hospitalization.  
(例文)The subcommittee decided that in cases such as these, prefectural governors will inform the health minister, who will then convene a meeting of experts to decide whether the cases in question are SARS. When a diagnosis is confirmed, measures including disinfection and forced hospitalization will be implemented. The law on infectious diseases classifies 74 kinds of illnesses into four categories, depending on their severity. Illnesses such as Ebola hemorrhagic fever are in the top category.


生死にかかわる病気:life-threatening disease
(例文)The law allows prefectural governors to handle life-threatening contagious diseases with unknown causes via measures such as forced hospitalization.


息切れ:shortness of breath  
(例文)
SARS symptoms include fever, coughing and shortness of breath--which are also common to those suffering from the flu and pneumonia--but the virus has not yet been identified and its route remains unknown.


エボラ出血(性)熱:Ebola hemorrhagic fever 
(例文)
The Narita Red Cross Hospital in Narita, Chiba Prefecture, a hospital authorized to treat first-type contagious diseases such as Ebola hemorrhagic fever and plague virus, will be the first hospital in the country prepared to deal with SARS patients, as many airplanes from Hong Kong and Guangdong in China land at Narita Airport.


ワクチン:vaccine 
(例文)No effective vaccine or drug has been developed to treat it.


厚生労働省:Health, Labour and Welfare Ministry 
(例文)
The Health, Labor and Welfare Ministry has not yet issued instructions on how to deal with SARS cases when they surface.


SARSウィルスに感染する:contract the SARS virus、be infected with the SARS virus
(例文)
Tokyo Metropolitan Bokuto General Hospital in Sumida Ward, Tokyo, one of two hospitals in Tokyo authorized to treat first-type contagious diseases, received several patients who claimed to have contracted the virus.


広東省:Guangdong Province 
(例文)The Foreign Ministry issued a travel warning Thursday urging Japanese to postpone nonessential visits to Hong Kong and Guangdong Province, the areas most heavily hit by SARS. This was preceded by a similar international advisory issued by the World Health Organization on Wednesday. The ministry also issued additional, lower-level travel warnings later Friday, urging its nationals to be careful in traveling to Singapore, China's Shanxi Province, Taiwan, Macau, Hanoi and Toronto.