スピーチの中の語句を覚える (通検、国連英検対策) (2002/6/14)

ここでは、米国大統領のスピーチをはじめ、国連事務総長等のスピーチの中に出てくる語句を随時紹介していきます。

4、 コフィ アナン国連事務総長 世界食料サミットでの演説 (2002年6月10日)より

10 June 2002

‘NO TIME TO WASTE’ IF GOAL OF HALVING POVERTY BY 2015 TO BE REACHED,

SECRETARY-GENERAL TELLS ROME FOOD SUMMIT

      Following is the address by Secretary-General Kofi Annan to the World Food Summit in Rome, 10 June 2002:

-
At the World Food Summit here in Rome in 1996, the international community set the goal of cutting by half the number of hungry children, women and men by 2015.  Nearly a third of that time has already passed, and progress has been far too slow.

World Food Summit
世界食料サミット

by half
半分を(だけ)、《皮肉》非常に

There is no time to waste if we are to reach our target -?
which is also one of the
Millennium Development Goals agreed by world leaders in September 2000.
millennium
(名詞) ミレニアム、イエス・キリストが統治する神聖な千年間、1000年(間)、千年期{せんねん き}、至福千年、千年祭、黄金時代

(関連語句)
  • millennium baby
    西暦2000年に生まれた赤ん坊
  • millennium bottle of wine
    ミレニアム・ワイン、2000年記念ワイン
  • millennium bug problem
    2000年問題、1000年目のバグ
    *古いコンピュータは4桁の年号を下2桁だけで処理しており(たとえば1999年なら99)、上2桁は19であると決めつけているので、2000年になると1900年になってしまい、年数や日数の計算が狂ってしまう。これは、将来のことまで考えなかったコンピュータ設計者のミスである。
  • millennium celebration
    千年紀の祝典[お祝い]
  • millennium commission
    千年紀委員会
  • millennium computer crisis
    2000年問題危機
  • Millennium Democratic Party
    新千年民主党
    *一般に民主党と呼ばれている韓国与党
  • millennium edition Barbie
    ミレニアム・バージョンのバービー人形
  • millennium event
    千年紀記念イベント[行事]
  • millennium exhibition
    千年紀記念博覧会
  • millennium festival
    千年紀の祭典
  • millennium fever
    千年紀フィーバー
  • Millennium Generation
    新世紀世代、2000年代に成人を迎える人々
Every day, more than 800 million people worldwide -? among them, 300 million children -? suffer the gnawing pain of hunger, and the diseases or disabilities caused by malnutrition.  According to some estimates, as many as 24,000 people die every day, as a result. gnawing
(形容詞) かじる


(関連語句)
  • gnawing animal
    齧歯動物
  • gnawing anxiety
    責めさいなむような不安
  • gnawing apprehension
    心をさいなむ不安
  • gnawing pain
    しつこく続く痛み
  • illness gnawing his life
    命をむしばんでいる病気
  • waves gnawing away at the cliffs
    崖を浸食する波
disability
(名詞) 能力的な障害、(身体)障害
 
malnutrition
(名詞) 栄養失調(症)、栄養不良
(用例)
・ If no more food aid is available, there will be serious problem with malnutrition. : 食糧援助がなければ深刻な栄養失調の問題が発生することになるだろう。
  
So there is no point in making further promises today.  This Summit must give renewed hope to those 800 million people by agreeing on concrete action. There is no point in doing
〜しても仕方がない
There is no shortage of food on the planet.  World production of grain alone is more than enough to meet the minimum nutritional needs of every child, woman and man.  But while some countries produce more than they need to feed their people, others do not, and many of these cannot afford to import enough to make up the gap.  Even more shamefully, the same happens within countries.  There are countries which have enough food for their people, and yet allow many of them to go hungry.

 

nutritional
(形容詞) 栄養学の、栄養上の


(関連語句)
  • nutritional anasarca
    食事性全身水腫、食事性全身浮腫
  • nutritional anemia
    栄養性貧血
  • nutritional balance
    栄養のバランス
  • nutritional chemistry
    栄養化学
go hungry
飢える、空腹でいる、食べずにいる
Hunger and poverty are closely linked.  Hunger perpetuates poverty, since it prevents people from realizing their potential and contributing to the progress of their societies.  Hunger makes people more vulnerable to diseases.  It leaves them weak and lethargic, reducing their ability to work and provide for their dependents.  The same devastating cycle is repeated from generation to generation ?- and will continue to be, until we take effective action to break it. perpetuate
(他動詞) 〜を永続させる、不滅にする、永続化する


(関連表現)
  • perpetuate a vicious circle
    悪循環が断ち切れない
  • perpetuate an administration
    政権を持続させる
  • perpetuate negative stereotypes
    否定的な固定概念を永続させる
  • perpetuate one's existence
    存在を固定化する
  • perpetuate one's name
    名を末代に残す
vulnerable to
〜に弱い、〜に脆弱である、〜に無防備な、〜を受けやすい


(関連表現)
  • be vulnerable to attack
    攻撃を受けやすい
  • be vulnerable to counterattack
    反撃を受けやすい
  • be vulnerable to damage
    被害を受けやすい
  • be vulnerable to diseases
    病気にかかりやすい
  • be vulnerable to international criticism
    国際批判を受けやすい
  • be vulnerable to nuclear or chemical attack from rogue states
    ならず者国家による核攻撃あるいは化学攻撃を受けやすい
  • be vulnerable to someone's effects
    〜の影響を受けやすい
lethargic
(形容詞) 気だるい、不活発な、無気力な


(関連表現)
  • lethargic encephalitis
    嗜眠性脳炎
  • lethargic sleep
    昏睡
  • lethargic stupor
    嗜眠性昏迷
  • lethargic-looking
    (形容詞) 気だるい顔つきの
  • feel lethargic from lack of sleep
    寝不足でだるい
  • make someone lethargic
    (人)を気だるくさせる
dependent
(形容詞) 頼っている、依存している、従属する、従属な、従属している、扶養されている、従属する
(名詞) 依存している人、扶養家族
(用例)
・ Dependents include one legal wife and up to __ legal unmarried, non working children up to the age of 18 years. : 《就業規則》被扶養家族とは、法律上の配偶者および最高_人までの子で、従業員の収入によって生活している者とする。

・ Unless stated on otherwise in the employee's Employment Letter, medical and hospitalization benefits will be granted to all permanent employee and their dependents. : 《就業規則》従業員の雇用通知書に特に指定のない限り、本採用されている全従業員およびその被扶養家族に医療手当および入院手当を支給する。


(関連表現)
  • dependent action
    相互依存作用
We must break this cycle, and reduce hunger and poverty over the long term.  About 70 per cent of the hungry and poor of the developing world live in rural areas.  Many of them are subsistence farmers or landless people seeking to sell their labour -- who depend directly or indirectly on agriculture for their earnings. subsistence
(名詞) 生存、生存最低生活


(関連表現)
  • subsistence activities
    自給自足活動
  • subsistence agriculture
    零細農業、自給自足農業
  • subsistence allowance
    就職支度金、食費手当、生活手当、特別手当
  • subsistence benefit
    最低生活費給付
  • subsistence consumption
    生存消費
  • subsistence cost
    最低生活費
  • subsistence crop
    自給用作物
  • subsistence diet
    生存食、秘結食
  • subsistence economy
    自給自足経済
  • subsistence farm
    自耕自給農場
  • subsistence farmer
    自給自足農業者、自作農
  • subsistence farming
    自給自足農業、零細農業、自営農業
  • subsistence fishing
    生活権漁業
We must improve agricultural productivity and standards of living in the countryside by helping small subsistence farmers and rural communities increase their incomes, and improve the quantity and quality of locally available food.  For that, we must give them greater access to land, credit, and relevant technology and knowledge that would help them grow more resistant crops, as well as ensuring plant and animal safety. resistant
(形容詞) 抵抗力のある、耐える、耐久性のある


(関連表現)
  • resistant bacteria
    耐性菌
  • resistant cell
    耐性細胞
  • resistant edema
    治療抵抗性水腫
                         
  • resistant insect to insecticide
    殺虫剤抵抗性害虫
But success will also depend on developments beyond the farm gate, such as improvements in rural health-care services and education, and in rural infrastructure, which includes roads, the supply of irrigation water, and food safety management.  Such improvements would also do much to stimulate private sector investment in downstream activities, such as food processing and marketing.

irrigation water
潅漑用水

downstream
(副詞) 下流に、下流部門の、流れを下って
  • downstream channel
    下流チャネル
  • downstream company
    川下企業
  • downstream gate
    下流門
  • downstream industry
    川下産業
  • downstream load utility
    ダウンストリーム・ロード・ユーティリティ
  • downstream process
    後続加工
  • downstream processors
    下流加工業者
                       
  • downstream products
    川下製品
  • downstream region
    下流領域
  • downstream strategy
    川下作戦
  • downstream surge tank
    下部サージタンク
  • ayu going downstream
    落ち鮎
  • be carried downstream by river
    川によって下流に運ばれる
  • drift downstream
    下流に流れていく
  • float downstream
    川を流れ下る
  • go downstream
    流れを下る
And we must secure a central place for women, who play a critical role in agriculture in developing countries.  They are involved in every stage of food production, working far longer hours than men, and are the key to ensuring that their families have adequate supplies of food. ensure
(他動詞-1) 確かにする、確実にする、(成功を)保証する、請け合う、約束する、裏付ける、〜を確保する、必ず手に入るようにする
*(語源)する(en)+確実に(sure)
*(結び付く名詞)safety, security, peace, passage, the survival of 〜
(用例)
・ Airports are taking steps to ensure passenger safety. : 空港は乗客の安全を確保するための手段を講じている。
・ We want to ensure quality.
・ He says, U.S. aid is needed in order to ensure stability. : 安全を確保するためには米国からの支援が必要だと彼は言う。
(他動詞-2) 安全にする、(人を危険などから)守る
Nowhere are strategies for sustainable agricultural and rural development more important than in Africa, where nearly 200 million people -- 28 per cent of the population -- are chronically hungry.  Indeed, today -- for the first time in a decade -- several countries in southern Africa face a risk of outright famine over the coming months. chronically
(副詞) 慢性的に
(用例)
・ A man chronically sick will live to a great age. : 《諺》憎まれっ子世にはばかる。
  • be chronically allergic to, be
    〜に慢性的なアレルギーがある
  • chronically deficit-ridden
    慢性的な負債を抱える
  • chronically ill
    慢性的に体調がすぐれない
  • chronically late
    慢性性に遅れている
  • chronically undernourished
    慢性的な栄養不足状態で
outright
(形容詞-1) 無条件の
(形容詞-2) 率直な、あからさまな
(同意語)direct
(形容詞-3) 完全な、徹底的な、全くの
(同意語)complete / total
(副詞)すっかり、完全に、公然と


(関連表現)
  • outright apology
    徹底した謝罪
  • outright ban on
    〜を全く禁止すること、〜の全面的禁止          
  • outright bankruptcy
    無条件の破産
  • outright buying
    現買い
  • outright cost of
    〜の総費用
  • outright cover
    アウトライト・カバー
  • outright dealings
    無条件取引
  • outright denial
    きっぱりとした否認
  • outright denial of intuitive signals
    本能的信号の徹底的な否定
  • outright devaluation
    直接的切り下げ
  • outright expense
    総経費
  • outright failure
    完全な失敗
  • outright fake
    真っ赤な偽物
  • outright fantasy
    全くの夢物語
We must, therefore, bring all our innovative thinking to bear on helping Africa fight hunger.  The African-owned and -led New Partnership for Africa’s Development must be supported as a potentially important tool in that fight. -
We must also fulfil the promise given at last November’s meeting of the World Trade Organization in Doha, and make sure that the new round of trade negotiations removes the barriers to food imports from developing countries.  For instance, the tariffs imposed on processed food, like chocolate, make it impossible for processing industries in developing countries to compete. World Trade Organization
(組織名) 世界貿易機構
(略語)WTO

(関連表現)
  • entry into the World Trade Organization
    世界貿易機関への加盟
  • tolerated by the World Trade Organization
    世界貿易機関で認められた
Doha
(地名) ドーハ (カタールの首都
We must also evaluate carefully the impact of the subsidies that are now given to producers in rich countries.  By lowering food prices in the poorest countries, they may help to alleviate hunger in some cases and in the short term, but dumping surpluses also has devastating long-term effects -? ranging from disincentives for national production to unemployment -? while making it impossible for developing countries to compete on the world market. subsidy
【名】 交付金、助成金、(政府)補助金


disincentive
(形容詞) がっくりさせる、意欲をくじく
(名詞) 意欲をくじくもの、行動を妨げるもの、行動を抑制するもの、阻害要因、経済成長を阻害するもの


(関連表現)
  • disincentive effect
    負の誘因効果
  • disincentive effects of taxation
    租税{そぜい}の阻害要素
  • disincentive to work
    労働意欲を抑制するもの
  • inappropriate disincentive
    不適切な阻害要因
However, even if markets in developed countries were opened further, these countries would still need help to take advantage of these opportunities, especially in the agriculture sector.  The application of some international norms and standards cannot be met without technical assistance and further investment. take advantage of
(1) 〜を^うまく[巧みに]利用する、〜を好きなように利用する、〜を活かす、〜の特典を生かす、〜に乗じる、〜につけ込む、〜に便乗する、〜を駆使する、(人)の弱味につけ込む、〜を行使する、〜を誘惑する
(2) 〜をだます、〜を裏切る


(関連表現)
  • take advantage of a blind point of law
    法律の盲点をつく
  • take advantage of a boom
    好景気の波に乗る
  • take advantage of a general rise in prices to raise the prices
    便乗値上げをする
  • take advantage of a loophole in the law
    法の盲点をつく
  • take advantage of acquired skills
    これまで培ってきた能力を活かす
  • take advantage of an opponent's weakness
    相手の弱点につけ込む
  • take advantage of an opportunity
    機に乗じる、機会を利用する

norm
(名詞) 基準、基準労働量、標準、平均、規準、規範、ノルマ

(関連表現)
  • norm for the industry
    当該産業の規範
  • norm group
    規範集団
  • norm in the United States and Europe
    欧米では当たり前のこと
  • norm of an operator
    《数学》作用素ノルム
  • norm of working capital
    運転資本の規範
  • norm-
    標準の、正常な
  • norm-actual result comparison
    規範・実績比較
  • norm-referenced test
    基準準拠検査
The fight against hunger also depends on the sustainable management of natural resources and ecosystems, which contribute to food production.  With world population expected to reach well over 7 billion by 2015, pressure on the environment will continue to mount.  The challenge of the coming years is to produce enough food to meet the needs of 1 billion more people, while preserving the natural resource base on which the well-being of present and future generations depends. ecosystem
(名詞) エコシステム、生態系


(関連表現)
  • ecosystem component
    生態系要素
  • ecosystem diversity
    生態系の多様性
  • ecosystem dynamics
    生態系力学
  • ecosystem ecology
    生態系生態学                   
  • ecosystem function
    生態系の機能
  • ecosystem mapping
    生態系図化
  • ecosystem model
    生態系モデル
  • ecosystem structure
    生態系構造
  • ecosystem transfer rate
    生態系転移率
  • ecosystem with abundant nature
    豊かな生態系
  • affect the earth's ecosystems
    地球の生体系を乱す
  • aquatic ecosystem
    水界生態系
  • closed ecosystem
    閉鎖生態系
  • coastal ecosystem
    沿岸生態系
  • cropland ecosystem
    耕地生態系
  • cultivated ecosystem
    農地生態系
  • damage ecosystems
    生態系に被害を与える
  • degraded ecosystem
    退行生態系
  • disrupt the ecosystems of nature
    自然の生態系を破壊する
  • disruption of ecosystem
    生態系破壊
mount
(自動-1) 上がる、高まる、(苛立ちが)募る
(自動-2) 増加する、かさむ
(他動-1) 〜に^上がる[登る]、(馬に)乗る
(他動-2) 取り付ける、はめ込む、埋め込む、備え付ける、搭載する
(他動-3) 《コ》実装する、組み込む、マウントする、(ディスクを)のせる
(他動-4) 《印刷》張り込む
(他動-5) 〜を始める、〜をしかける、〜に取りかかる
(他動-6) 上演する
(他動-7) 標本にする 
But the hungry poor also need direct help today.  Food aid can make a big difference -- both in emergencies and in situations of chronic hunger.  Direct nutritional support to pregnant and nursing women helps their babies grow into healthy adults.  School-feeding programmes not only feed hungry children but also help to increase school attendance -? and studies show that educated people are best able to break out of the cycle of poverty and hunger. break out of
〜から抜け出す、〜から脱獄する
(用例)
・ The lion broke out of its cage. : ライオンが檻から逃げ出した。

(関連表現)
  • break out of bounds
    羽目を外す
  • break out of one's mold
    自分の殻を破る
  • break out of one's shell
    自分の殻を破る
  • break out of prison
    脱獄する、牢を破る
  • break out of the dilemma
    ジレンマから抜け出す
  • break out of the line
    割り込み
  • break out of the mold
    決まりきった型を抜け出す、型から外れる、それまでの型を破る
  • break ~ out of diplomatic isolation
    〜の外交的孤立を打破する
If we want to reverse the current trends and halve hunger by 2015, we need a comprehensive and coherent approach that addresses the multiple dimensions of hunger, by pursuing simultaneously wider access to food, and agricultural and rural development.  We need an anti-hunger programme that could become a common framework around which global and national capacities to fight hunger can be mobilized. halve
(自動詞) 半分になる
(他動詞-1) 〜のサイズを2分の1にする、等分する、半分に切る、二分する
(他動詞) 《ゴルフ》〜を引き分ける


(関連表現)
  • halve a hole with another
    《ゴルフ》相手と同じ打数でホールを終わる
  • halve the number of ministries
    省庁の数を半減する
  • halve the prices for
    〜の価格を半額にする
  • halve the production
    生産を半減する
framework
(名詞) 体制、組織、フレームワーク、骨組み、枠組み

(関連表現)
  • framework agreement
    包括協定
  • framework agreement between North Korea and the United States
    米朝枠組み合意
  • Framework Convention on Climate Change
    気候変動枠組み条約
  • framework directive
    総括指令
  • framework for discussion
    議論の枠組み
  • framework for negotiation
    交渉の枠組み
  • framework legislative
    包括法規
We know that fighting hunger makes economic and social sense. It is a key step towards achieving all the Millennium Development Goals.  It is fitting, therefore, that this Summit comes in the middle of a crucial cycle of conferences aimed at helping us improve the lives of people everywhere -- from trade in Doha, via financing for development in Monterrey, to sustainable development in Johannesburg. financing
(名詞) 融資、資金調達             

(関連表現)
  • financing activity
    資金調達活動
Monterrey
(地名) モンテレイ (メキシコ)
 
Johannesburg
(地名) ヨハネスブルク (南アフリカ)
Hunger is one of the worst violations of human dignity.  In a world of plenty, ending hunger is within our grasp.  Failure to reach this goal should fill every one of us with shame.  The time for making promises is over.  It is time to act.  It is time to do what we have long promised to do -- eliminate hunger from the face of the earth. human dignity
人間としての尊厳


(関連表現)
  • basic human dignity
    基本的な人間の尊厳
  • be contrary to human dignity
    人の尊厳に反する
  • undermine human dignity
    人間の尊厳を害する
  • violate human dignity
    人間の尊厳を踏みにじる
within grasping distance
手を伸ばせばつかめる所に


within one's grasp
手の届く所に、理解の及ぶ